2 Child Policy Agreement
From next year, the number of children born is expected to continue to decline, experts say, as the number of women eligible to have a second child begins to decline if their rates are higher. Like many of its Asian neighbours, China has a low fertility rate and, to date, the government has offered few incentives to encourage more births, with the exception of the end of its one-child policy. And for this reason, some critics say, the policy change may come too little too late. Abortion, employment and infanticide are illegal in China. However, the US State Department  told the UK Parliament  and the human rights organization Amnesty International that there were still murders of children.   An author of the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs wrote: „The one-child policy has also led to what Amartya Sen first called `Missing Women`, or to the 100 million girls who `miss` as a result of female ingenry, abandonment and neglect of the people of China (and other developing countries).  Because of the preference of rural Chinese society to give birth to a son, prenatal distinction and sexist abortion are illegal in China.  It is often considered one of the key factors of the gender imbalance in China, since excess infant mortality among women and the under-coverage of female births alone cannot explain these gender differences alone.  Researchers have found that the sex of the firstborn child in rural China has an impact on whether or not the mother will seek an ultrasound for the second child. 40% of women who have a first-born are looking for an ultrasound for their second pregnancy, compared to 70% of women with older girls. This clearly shows the desire for women to give birth to a son when one is not yet born.  In 2005, the Chinese government made sexist abortion illegal.
 The controversial policy was introduced at the national level in 1979 to slow population growth. Link to research: www.bmj.com/content/366/bmj.l4680 link to the infographic: press.psprings.co.uk/bmj/august/twochildgraphic.png The One-Child Policy was part of a birth planning program designed to control the size of the rapidly growing population of the People`s Republic of China.  Unlike family planning policies in most other countries, which focus on contraception to help women have the number of children they want, it has limited the number of births parents could have, making it the world`s most extreme example for population planning. It was introduced in 1979 (after decades of a two-child policy), amended from the mid-1980s to allow rural parents to have a second child when the first was a daughter, and then lasted three more decades before the government announced a return to a two-child limit at the end of 2015.   The policy also allowed exceptions for certain other groups, including ethnic minorities. For example, the term „one-child policy” has been described as „misomer” because nearly 30 of the 36 years it has had (1979-2015) have been allowed to have a second child for half of all parents in China.    Heihaizi (Chinese: 黑孩; Pinyin: h`ih`izi) or „black child” is a term that refers to children born outside the one-child policy or, in general, children who are not registered in the National Registering System of Chinese Households. In 2009, the Population Regulation was amended to again limit the number of children to one or two children, although individuals were allowed to decide when and how long they were born.  The government is in the process of drafting a new population law, which will replace the population decree in 2015.
However, there are differences between policy makers and scientists on what should be included in the legislation.  A long-term experiment in a county in Shanxi, where the Planned Parenthood Act has been suspended, indicated that families will not have