Trade Agreements African Countries
However, 11 countries, including the Nigerian and South African economic giants, have not signed the framework protocol in Kigali, although the two countries have announced that they will join the train after further consultations with national stakeholders. Most AU member states have signed the agreement. Benin, Botswana, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria and Zambia did not sign the agreement.  Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari was particularly reluctant to join if it against Nigerian entrepreneurship and Nigerian industry.  On 7 July 2019, Nigeria and Benin pledged to sign free trade with Africa at the 12th Special Session of the Association`s Assembly on ACFTA; Eritrea is the only country among the 55 member states of the African Union that has not signed the agreement.    After the Kigali Summit, further signatures were affixed to the AfCFTA. At the African Union summit in Nouakchott on 1 July 2018, five other nations, including South Africa, joined the agreement. Kenya and Ghana were the first nations to ratify the agreement and file their ratifications on 10 May 2018.  Of the signatories, 22 had to ratify the agreement in order for it to enter into force, and it happened on 29 April 2019, when Sierra Leone and the Arab Democratic Republic of the Sahara ratified the agreement.  As a result, the agreement came into force 30 days later on 30 May 2019; At that time, only Benin, Nigeria and Eritrea had not signed.
Outstanding issues, such as trade agreements and rules of origin, are still being negotiated. [when?] The strongest safeguards are „trade remedies,” including a measure allowing countries to apply anti-dumping duties on imports below their fair value, to offset the impact of duties on imports subject to unjustified subsidies. So far, it is true that only five East African countries have submitted their ratification of the AfCFTA. However, what matters is not the number of countries, but the fact that a regional bloc of contiguous countries, representing about three-quarters of regional GDP, is growing. From 1 January 2021, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda will all begin with a reduction in their tariffs – starting with a linear reduction to 90% of tariffs – which will result in the abolition of tariffs on intra-regional imports over a five-year period (10 years for countries considered by the United Nations as the „least developed countries”); By the standards of regional trade agreements, this pace of liberalization will be quite rapid. Companies frustrated by trade barriers could use a „non-tariff barrier mechanism” in the agreement to signal commitments on trade problems and ask for solutions, Herr says.